How long will turf tolerate submersion? — via the Internet
The answer is not always so cut and dried. Turf injury from submersion depends on many factors such as water temperature, turfgrass species, duration of submergence, water movement, silt algae and depth of submergence. Lack of oxygen and light are the primary factors determining injury from submersion. Plants need oxygen to maintain respiration. When temperature increases, dissolved oxygen in the water decreases. Turfgrass can be killed within a day when the sun is bright and temperatures are 85-90 degrees; but depending on the species, they can tolerate submersion for up to two months during cloudy conditions when water temperatures are 50 degrees or less. Stagnated, non-flowing water will also have less available oxygen and be more damaging to the submerged turf.
For cool-season species, creeping bentgrass, rough bluegrass and buffalograss are the most tolerant of submersion. Kentucky bluegrass is moderately tolerant, and annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass are least tolerant of submersion.
What landscape design tips can you provide for maximizing energy conservation? — via the Internet
Windbreaks slow the air around a building and reduce heat loss in winter and cooling from air conditioners in summer. As much as 50 percent of the wind velocity can be reduced with windbreaks. Multiple, staggered rows of evergreen trees are more effective than single rows.
Divert airflow by positioning plants or screens to funnel the airflow to areas such as patios. Strategically placed, plants can gather and concentrate existing currents.
Shade with deciduous trees that provide heavy shade in summer but minimal shade in winter when leaves have fallen. Vines used on the south facing walls provide shade, summer cooling and insulation. Deciduous clinging vines are best for masonry walls but not on wood walls where wood decay can be problematic.
Dead air space next to a building provides insulation. Foundation plantings serve this purpose.
Transpirational cooling by turf, ground covers, trees and vines can significantly lower temperature in summer.
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