GENETICALLY ENGINEERED CROPS
Since the agricultural biotechnology industry in the United States held its first field trials, federal and state governments and private corporations have spent billions of dollars on research, commercial development and regulation. So far, more than 40 genetically modified crops are currently allowed commerce in the United States. These modified crops have two traits — herbicide tolerance (HT) and insect resistance (Bt) — that have been engineered into four commodity crops (corn, cotton, soybeans and canola) that lead the marketplace. Companies that market and produce these crops include Bayer, Monsanto, Dupont/Pioneer, Syngenta and Dow/Mycogen.
|Product||Institution||Engineered Traits||Sources of New Genes||Name|
|Canola||Bayer||Resist glufosinate herbicide to control weeds||Bacteria, virus||LibertyLink, 2000|
|Corn||Dow/Mycogen DuPont/Pioneer||Resist glufosinate herbicide to control weeds/Bt toxin to control insect pests||Corn, bacteria, virus||Herculex 1, 2001|
|Corn||Syngenta||Bt toxin to control insect pests||Bacteria||Bt11, 1996|
|Cotton||Monsanto/Bayer||Resist bromoxynil herbicide to control weeds||Bacteria, virus||BXN Cotton, 1995|
|Soybean||Monsanto||Resist glyphosate herbicide to control weeds||Petunia, soybean, bacteria, virus||Roundup Ready, 1995|
|Source: Union of Concerned Scientists.|
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