QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ABOUT PESTICIDES
The Need for Pesticides
Why do we use pesticides?
Pesticides (the generic term for insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) control weeds, insect pests and fungal and other diseases. The benefit of pesticides lies in their ability to manage a pest (weed, insect or disease) problem that potentially could become out of control and could threaten your health or the health of your family, pets and plants, or threaten the quality of your home, lawn, school or business. Pesticides also protect roadsides, utilities, rights-of-way, forests and lakes from pest damage.
Pesticides help to limit the damage that can be caused by insects, weeds and plant diseases. Whether it is an insecticide for controlling termites or fleas in your home, a herbicide for ridding your lawn of dandelions or a fungicide that keeps plants alive during a disease outbreak, pesticides are analogous to the medicines we use to preserve our own health.
Who are professional applicators?
Professional applicators are people trained to apply or direct the application of pesticides as part of their jobs, generally for a fee. These could include lawn care operators, golf course superintendents, indoor pest control operators and institutional grounds managers working on sites such as parks, schools, resorts, office complexes, rights-of-way or industrial locations. Professional applicators are those who apply pesticides to property other than their own.
What type of license or certification is required to apply pesticides?
There are two types of pesticides: general use pesticides and restricted use pesticides. General use pesticides are those purchased by the public in garden centers and retail outlets, which can be applied by homeowners without special training, just by following directions on the product label. General use pesticides are also applied by professional applicators, although professionals may have a greater choice of products or quantities from which to choose and more sophisticated application equipment.
Restricted use pesticides can only be applied by certified applicators, or individuals operating under the supervision of certified applicators. To become certified, professional applicators must demonstrate, through testing, practical knowledge of pests related to the category of certification for which the individual is applying. Professional applicators must know how to:
Accurately identify the pests (insects, diseases, weeds, vermin, etc.),
Select the most effective and efficient pest control measures,
Determine the necessity of chemical control,
Select the correct pesticides to use, and
Apply products safely and responsibly.
These minimum standards for certification are established by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and each state's lead agency for pesticides is responsible for enforcement. A state may establish more stringent requirements for certification, according to needs within that particular state. Generally, it is the Cooperative Extension Service that is responsible for training and testing pesticide applicators. Training classes are usually offered in individual counties throughout a state. Certified applicators must also renew their training regularly by attending approved continuing education programs.
In addition to certification by states, many trade associations offer their own certification programs.
Some of the national trade associations offering such programs include:
- Associated Landscape Contractors of America
- Golf Course Superintendents Association of America
- Professional Lawn Care Association of America
- Professional Grounds Management Society
- National Pest Management Association
- National Railroad Contractors Association
- Midwest Aquatic Plant Management Society
- Mid-America Green Industry Council
- National Roadside Vegetation Management Association
These programs are most often provided to individuals who already are certified under state requirements, and who desire to enhance their professional knowledge and credentials.
Do professional applicators use products that pose greater risks than those used by the homeowner?
Most people are surprised to find that the pesticides regularly used by professionals are often the same as general use products available to homeowners. However, licensed professionals occasionally use restricted-use products (materials not available to the general public) to solve pest problems that are not responsive to general use products and which may require more sophisticated application technology. These few restricted-use products can pose a hazard to those who handle the concentrated material when preparing application mixes. Therefore, only certified applicators may purchase and use or supervise the application of restricted-use products.
Professional products are generally labeled with the same rates, the same precautions and the same usage information whether packaged for personal or commercial use. Professional applicators offer their customers experience and convenience, but most of the products they use are the same as those used by homeowners.
What do terms “natural” and “organic” mean with regard to pesticide products?
There are no universally accepted definitions, but suggested definitions of these terms are:
Natural: A product derived from animal/biological, mineral or plant sources, in a form substantially as it occurs in nature. The materials may be altered or manipulated to put them in a physical form that allows them to be efficiently used in the application process by the homeowner or professional applicator.
Organic: Any substance containing the element carbon is, by technical definition, organic. Both naturally occurring and man-made products may be organic. The common misconception that organic and natural have the same meaning may cause the non-technical consumer to believe that a man-made organic material is natural when it is not.
Natural-Based: The term “natural-based” is generally used to describe a mixture of materials that includes some materials that may be properly described as natural. The portion that is natural is frequently undefined. The other portion may be man-made pesticides or fertilizers.
Organic-Based: The term “organic-based” is generally used to describe a mixture of materials that includes some organic materials. The portion of the product that is both organic and natural is frequently undefined. The other portion may be man-made pesticides or fertilizers.
It is important to understand that “natural” or “organic” products are not free from risk.
If any of the above terms are used by your professional applicator, ask what they mean.
How safe are the pesticides used by professionals and homeowners?
If pesticides are handled and applied with care according to label directions, they do not represent an unreasonable risk to people, non-target organisms or the environment. Homeowners should be aware that the use of pesticides, as with many household products, does pose some risk, and why label directions must be read and followed closely. The level of risk posed by a chemical depends on its toxicity and the level of exposure. Improper or inappropriate use of pesticides and other household products by either the homeowner or the professional applicator can increase the level of exposure, which in turn increases the level of risk posed to human health and the environment.
What can I do to minimize any risks to me or my family?
The simplest way to minimize risk is to read the entire product label and follow all instructions, especially protective clothing requirements. Be sure to store all pesticides securely and out of the reach of children and pets. Regardless of whether you or a professional applies the pesticide, keep people and pets away from the treated area immediately following application.
If the product requires that you stay off or away from the treated area after application, it will be stated on the label. However, although many products used on home lawns have no specific reentry recommendations prescribed by the product label, a good rule of thumb is to stay off a treated area until it has thoroughly dried or settled (for granular products) following pesticide application.
Can pesticide applications harm dogs and cats?
No, not if label instructions are followed. All pesticides are carefully tested before they can be registered by the EPA and before they are sold. Part of this testing includes determining possible effects on non-target organisms, such as pets. Pesticides which pose an unacceptable risk to non-target organisms cannot be registered. Of course, you should follow the same re-entry procedures for cats and dogs as is recommended for humans. Wait until the treated area dries (in the case of liquid application) and, for granular materials, comply with labeled directions for reentering the treated area.
When can pets return to pesticide-treated areas?
If there are any requirements regarding when pets can return to treated areas, these instructions will be on the label. Remember, some pesticides are developed and formulated for use on pets.
Are golfers at risk from pesticides when playing on a golf course?
No. There is no scientific evidence that golfers face any health risks from the pesticides used to maintain golf courses. Once a liquid product is applied and the turfgrass is dry or the product has been watered in, there is very little chance of exposure to golfers or others who enter the area.
How do we know that these products aren't harmful to humans or wildlife?
The pesticide industry is one of the most highly regulated industries in the United States. Before a product is registered by the EPA, it must be rigorously tested for potential human health and environmental effects. This process can take up to 10 years and involve up to 120 different tests and studies. Today, manufacturers may invest as much as $30 to $50 million or more in product testing before a new pesticide ever comes to the market. These tests are required, designed and reviewed by EPA scientists and are conducted according to EPA standards.
If products aren't dangerous, why do the applicators wear protective gear?
Applicators work directly with many pesticides and are exposed many times more often than homeowners. Consider the fact that it is safe for a person to have an occasional x-ray, but the x-ray technician must leave the room to avoid repeated exposure. Pesticide label directions require applicators to take certain precautions based on the assumption that the same person will be repeatedly exposed to the same product over many years.
Is it true that as much as 10 times more pesticides are applied to home lawns than to agricultural production?
No, this statement is not true. A U.S. Environmental Protection Agency study conducted in 1992 estimated the amount of pesticides used on U. S. crop lands was about 817 million pounds of active ingredient or about 3.4 pounds per acre in production (240-250 million crop acres). The same study estimated home and garden use at 69 million pounds. Lawn and turfgrass acreage has been estimated at about 25 million acres, for an average of less than three pounds per acre. Even assuming that all of the pesticide volume noted was used on lawns, the per-acre use would still be equal or less than that on the nation's cropland.
With any comparison between agricultural pesticide application and home lawn pesticide application, it is important to realize that not all turf areas are treated with pesticides, whereas most crop acreage is. To consider a lawn that is intensively managed and assume that treatment amount is applied to all turf areas would be a serious misconception. A classic example of this misconception is related to golf course pesticide application. A golf green is the most intensively managed portion of a golf course, but the rest of the course receives considerably less care. Greens make up only 4 percent of a typical 120 acre 18-hole course, and areas such as roughs (representing over half a golf course's acreage) receive minimal or no pesticide applications.
Each pesticide has been developed to be applied at a specific rate to be effective. Some application rates call for pounds per acre; some only ounces per acre. The important point is that, whether homeowner or farmer, label directions must be followed.
The chemical industry supports the proper use of its products, as directed by the product label. Each chemical is tested separately for its intended use, and each chemical is registered separately by the EPA.
How can an insecticide control insects and not be harmful to people and pets?
It is a well-established medical and scientific principle that the amount of a substance used determines whether it is harmful. With pesticides, the amount of pesticide needed to control insects is many orders of magnitude lower than the amount which would affect mammals, such as humans and pets. Remember, exposure alone does not equal risk.
Do pesticides cause cancer in people exposed to low doses of pesticides over a period of time?
Before a pesticide product can be registered and marketed it must first be evaluated as to its potential risks and benefits. Only products determined to have a reasonable certainty of no harm on the environment or human health can be registered by the EPA.
There is no specialty pesticide on the market known to cause cancer in humans. Some pesticides have been shown to cause tumors in laboratory animals when fed extremely high doses through-out their lifetime. The doses are many times higher from possible levels of human exposure.
The American Medical Association's Council on Scientific Affairs states that there is only conjectural evidence at best that pesticides may be carcinogenic. Dr. Bruce Ames, University of California at Berkeley, states, “There is no convincing evidence from either epidemiology or toxicology that pesticides are of interest as causes of human cancer.”
Does use of aquatic herbicides present a problem with fish, swimmers and drinking water quality?
Aquatic herbicides do not cause any permanent problems in aquatic ecosystems, but there may be some temporary restrictions on use of the water body depending on the aquatic herbicide that is used. Products vary in their mode of action and persistence in aquatic systems. Always consult the product label for restrictions.
Regulation of Pesticides
Who regulates pesticides and application services?
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), all products that contain pesticides must be registered with EPA before they can be lawfully sold or distributed. EPA registration means that pesticide registrants have submitted required scientific research data concerning the risks associated with the use of the pesticide, that EPA has reviewed the data and that EPA finds the data acceptable.
FIFRA requires that EPA undertake the re-registration of any pesticide product registered before November 1984. This includes updating the scientific database necessary to evaluate the risks and benefits and reviewing that data according to today's scientific standards.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
The FTC has regulatory powers covering advertising in any medium, whether transmitted orally or in written form. The FTC requires that all advertising materials and claims, including sales presentations, must be scientifically accurate while not being deceptive to the consumer.
The responsible state agency is usually the Department of Environmental Protection or Conservation, the Department of Agriculture, or the State Attorney General. Virtually all states require licensing and testing before a company can apply pesticides commercially. Many states also evaluate pesticide advertising within their borders. State agencies must also register any pesticide that will be used within the state. Pesticide companies and many professional applicators have stringent product stewardship programs to ensure the responsible use of their products. If you use a commercial company to apply pesticides, it is suggested you make sure the company is licensed by your state.
Are EPA registrations a statement of product safety?
The EPA refuses to state that any product is safe because there are always conditions under which the product may be unsafe. However, EPA registrations are granted only after exhaustive review of the test data which must be developed in order to register a pesticide. As part of the registration process, a product label is developed. When the label is followed, the product can be used without unreasonable risk to the applicator, the public and the environment.
Can unapproved pesticide products be legally used?
No. Pesticide products must be registered with the EPA before they are ever used. Furthermore, pesticide products must have a registration for each different use, such as lawn care, structural pest control or garden use.
Are product labels adequate to allow users to use the products safely?
Product labels provide adequate information to the users about how to use these products safely. The U.S. EPA also has an ongoing Label Improvement Program which allows the Agency to require new labeling information or to require revisions that make the label as user friendly as possible.
What is re-registration?
Re-registration involves reviewing the scientific data for a pesticide product registered before November 1984 to ensure it meets today's scientific standards. Re-registration does not imply that there is anything wrong with the product, but simply that it makes sense to ensure that products meet the most current standards.
As science advances, new tests are developed, new methods of analysis provide greater sensitivity, and more is learned about pesticides in general. Therefore, pesticide registration is not a one time event. Rather, it is necessary to continually upgrade the data that supports the registration.
How extensively tested are pesticides?
Pesticide production is one of the most highly regulated industries in the United States. Before a product is registered by the EPA, it must be rigorously tested for potential human health and environmental effects. This process can take up to 10 years and involves up to 120 different tests and studies. Today, manufacturers may invest $35 million or more in product testing before a new pesticide ever comes to the market.
It should be noted that almost all pesticides which are used for one purpose also have registrations for other uses. This means that even more testing must be done to satisfy the requirements of multiple registrations.
What is an inert ingredient?
A pesticide formulation, or formulated product, is the pesticide product that you purchase and includes both active and inert ingredients. An active ingredient is the substance that controls the pest. Whereas inert ingredients, such as solvents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, carriers, diluents and conditioning agents, are the other ingredients in the formulated product that are not involved in controlling the pest. Inert ingredients serve to dilute the active ingredient, act as a carrier (in case of granular products) and aid in mixing the product in water.
Are inert ingredients used in pesticide formulations tested for safety?
Many of the inert ingredients used in pesticide formulations are referred to as “Generally Regarded as Safe” by regulators. Safety has been established for these ingredients, which have been in widespread use in many products, not just pesticides, for many years. However, testing is required for other inert ingredients to get on EPA's approved inerts list, plus they are thoroughly tested as formulated products. Thus, it is the entire formulated product, not only the active ingredient, which is being tested.
Are pesticides fully tested before they are used?
Yes. However, the process of pesticide registration is ongoing. Even though a pesticide is fully tested at the time it is registered, this is not the end of the process. As science advances, testing abilities change, and as new tests are developed, it is necessary to upgrade the information base on pesticides. In addition, it is not uncommon for additional tests to be required to maintain a registration or to register a product for additional uses.
The public should not be alarmed to hear that additional tests are performed for products already on the market. Rather, they can be reassured that the registration process is an ongoing effort to ensure that the information supporting the registration is always state-of-the-art.
Movement of Pesticides from Application Site
What is the likelihood that pesticides applied to lawns will get into the groundwater?
There is very little likelihood that pesticides on lawns will end up in groundwater. Well-managed turf protects water. In studies at The Pennsylvania State University for the U.S. Geological Survey, researchers found that the impact of well-managed turfgrass on water quality appears to be positive in nature such that the potential for water pollution from lawn and commercial use of chemicals was considerably less than other urban pollutants not associated with well-managed turfgrass areas.
An Ohio State University study found that thatch and other underlying soil residues retained nearly all the applied pesticides during the first two weeks after application. Residues in the soil were less than one part per million over 34 weeks of sampling. This means virtually all the applied pesticide was staying in the thatch layer and surface residues rather than moving into underground water.
Presence of pesticides in well water is minimal. There are no known reported cases of adverse health effects from drinking pesticide-contaminated water. Even in areas where pesticide use is most heavily concentrated, the presence of pesticides in wells has been found to be minimal or nonexistent.
In a five-year, $12 million study, the EPA tested more than 1,300 wells nationwide. The study found that:
Only 0.8 percent of community water supplies and 0.2 percent of rural wells exceeded lifetime health advisory standards.
More than 99 percent of all wells in the country contain no pesticide traces exceeding EPA standards for safety.
“Present” doesn't mean harmful. Advances in analytical chemistry have made it possible to detect the presence of substances at levels never thought possible. The ability to detect chemicals at parts per million has virtually been replaced by measurements at parts per billion, parts per trillion and parts per quadrillion. As a comparison, a part per million is analogous to one second in 12.5 days, part per billion is analogous to one second in 32 years, and a part per trillion is analogous to one second in 32,000 years. To find a substance present in water has more to do with the ability to detect its presence, not a determination of risk.
The federal standard for safe exposure limits on individual chemicals (called the maximum concentration level) is set at levels far below the amount thought to cause potential adverse health effects among the most vulnerable persons in our society after a lifetime of exposure. Even when a tiny percentage of water supplies are found in violation of these standards, the elevated levels are often brief or seasonal and are still far below the concentrations which might threaten public health.
Isn't the wind drift a problem with pesticide application?
Drift is a concern only if proper precautions are not taken by the applicator. While applicators are trained to follow precautions to minimize off-target movement of pesticides, a combination of wind and application conditions may occasionally cause drift, if precautions are not taken.
Two types of drift may cause chemicals to move off target. Particle drift occurs when the wind scatters small spray droplets off the application site onto neighboring shrubs, flowers or lawns. Vapor drift occurs when chemicals evaporate and move with air currents to other sites. Vapor drift is not common among specialty products. In either case, an applicator should be aware of wind conditions to any drift potential.
If pesticides are applied to my lawn, is there risk to people in my house?
No. There are basically two ways products can end up in the house from the lawn. First, a sprayed pesticide could drift into the house. Secondly, a pesticide could be tracked into the house. In either case, the potential for movement of the pesticide is very low.
In addition, maximum exposure is at the site of application, the lawn. The maximum application rates for the lawn has already been determined through required EPA testing, including the determination that this maximum rate of application will not result in unreasonable risk to humans.
Any amount of product that inadvertently drifts or is tracked into the house will be far less than the amount allowed on the lawn. Therefore, any potential risk will be far less, or none existent.
Notification of Pesticide Application
How can I find out when pesticide applications have been made or will be made?
Upon request by the homeowners, professional applicators should provide information to the homeowner and adjacent neighbors regarding the pesticides used and the application schedule. Most companies will provide copies of product information at the time of sale or upon request. If you have not received such information, ask your professional.
Some states require posting following application. Several states offer a registry, which is a listing of persons who wish to be notified when adjacent properties will be treated with pesticides. Even in areas where a registry does not exist, good professional companies are willing to provide notification to individuals upon request.
Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) (formerly called multiple chemical sensitivity)
What are “idiopathic environmental intolerances,” and are they related to pesticide use?
There is considerable debate whether this phenomenon is a legitimate illness. Most recently, a committee of the World Health Organization properly identified the phenomenon as idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI), which generally means it is a phenomenon of unknown cause that seems to have an association with an intolerance for environmental factors.
In the 1940s and 1950s, Dr. Theron Randolph offered his theories on chronic health problems caused by exposure to common foods and synthetic chemicals in the environment. He later founded the controversial field of clinical ecology.
Clinical ecologists believe that the accumulated body load of multiple exposure to chemicals triggers illness. They contend that illness is caused by a deregulation of the immune system that normally protects individuals from disease. As proposed by the clinical ecologists, deregulation may result in increased sensitivity or allergic reactions to food and other common environmental compounds or lowered resistance to infections or cancers.
There is no theoretical or medical evidence supporting this concept of “environmental illness” or “immune deregulation.” The American Medical Association does not recognize IEI as an illness. Traditional allergists, represented by the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology(AAAI), have failed to find a link between patient symptoms and sensitivity or allergy to chemicals. Physicians and immunologists have also challenged the concept that patients with environmental illness have lowered resistance to infections and cancers. Based on scientific data, the AAAI has also shown that treatment regimens used by clinical ecologists are unproven. Consequently, patients may be subject to unwarranted and unnecessary disruptive treatments.
Integrated Pest Management
What is IPM, and how does it work?
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a continuous system of controlling pests (weeds, diseases, insects or others) in which pests are identified, action thresholds are considered, all possible control options are evaluated and selected control(s) are implemented. Control options — which include biological, chemical, cultural, manual and mechanical methods — are used to prevent or remedy unacceptable pest activity or damage. Choice of control option(s) is based on effectiveness, environmental impact, site characteristics, worker/public health and safety, and economics. The goal of an IPM system is to manage pests and the environment to balance benefits of control, costs, public health and environmental quality. IPM takes advantage of all appropriate pest management options.
IPM System Components
IPM systems rely on accurate determination of optimum control timing and selection of appropriate method(s). Implementation requires current comprehensive information on pests and control options. As a system, IPM programs include a series of three steps:
Monitor the site for presence of pest. Critical components of monitoring includes accurately identifying the pest, the presence of the pest, level of infestation and acquiring knowledge of requirements and life cycles of the pest.
Determine the action threshold below which the pest can be tolerated. Action thresholds are determined by factors such as severity of the problem caused by the pest, health or property concerns related to the pest, and user needs for the site where the pest is found.
Initiate preventive or curative action to avoid surpassing the established threshold by selecting the appropriate control method(s): biological, chemical, cultural, manual, mechanical. The selected method(s) of protection must balance considerations of economics, efficacy, worker/public health and safety, and potential hazards to property and the environment. Following applications, the continuous IPM process begins again.
IPM in Schools
Pests pose serious risks to children's health in schools. At the same time, the use of pesticides in schools can be challenging because of heightened concerns and misinformation. It is important to remember pesticides can be used safely and responsibly to control pests such as insects, rodents and weeds as part of a balanced integrated pest management program.
Cockroaches, ants, wasps, head lice and rats are the pests most commonly found in schools, and they do more than disrupt the learning environment. These pests pose increasing health and safety risks to children. Children, just by nature of their size, are more vulnerable to vector-borne diseases (carried by insects) because their immune systems are still developing. Consider some of the problems with pests in the school environment:
Cockroaches can live and breed by the thousands in classrooms and cafeterias. They carry germs from filthy surfaces to cafeteria tables and classroom desks. Cockroaches are the leading cause of asthma incidents in urban youth. The more children are exposed to cockroaches, the more allergic they become.
Mosquitoes carry deadly diseases. West Nile Virus, a deadly encephalitis virus that is transmitted to people, birds and horses by virus-carrying mosquitoes, is rampaging across the country. The number of cases of West Nile Virus continues to escalate as the spread of the disease marches across the country and into Canada. Last year in the United States, there were 4,156 cases of human infection, 284 of which were fatal.
Rats and mice are often found living in and under school buildings. Rodents contaminate stored food with their droppings and urine, and spread the deadly hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, an infectious disease. Since it was first recognized in the United States in 1993, a total of 344 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome have been reported (through July 24, 2003); 38 percent of cases were fatal.
Fire ants build their nests on school grounds. These nests often contain more than 100,000 ants. During recess and physical education classes, children are often stung when they step into nests while playing. Fire ants can inflict hundreds of painful stings to children. More than 80 people have died in recent years from fire ant attacks out-of-doors and 10 have died from serious attacks indoors.
More than half of the U.S. population, including children, are allergic to poison ivy, poison oak and poison sumac. Contact with each of these plants causes severe skin irritation, intense itching and burning, as well as blistering. A Wisconsin school district banned the use of herbicides to control poison ivy and other weeds. The decision was later reversed when a student had to undergo a 22-day course of steroids to treat a poison ivy rash. Other weeds, such as crabgrass and dandelions, can cause injury when children trip over them on playgrounds and sports fields.
These types of problems have caused schools to implement pest management programs. Many are turning to integrated pest management or IPM.
Communication Is Key
To be effective, a pest management team has to establish clear lines of communication and designated roles of responsibility. Often, the school board sets the overall pest management policy, provides funding and monitors the results. It is important that the school board understands what IPM is. Sometimes school boards are pressured to completely eliminate the use of pesticides. They try this approach, only to discover that the judicious use of pesticides is needed to economically and effectively control pest populations found in and around schools. Extensive research and solid science show pesticides pose little or no risk to the health of children or adults when used according to label instructions.
Establishing a Program
In addition to effective communications, an IPM program must include a written policy and a knowledgeable coordinator. A written policy is essential. IPM is doomed to fail without broad understanding and commitment by all stakeholders, including faculty, staff, board members and parents. A written policy helps to gain consensus and provides continuity.
Once a policy is in place, a staff person should coordinate the overall program. Whether the entire program is implemented internally or the majority of services are contracted out to a pest control professional, it is critical to have a knowledgeable person on staff.
Success of IPM in schools is also dependent upon full cooperation of administrators, faculty, maintenance/custodial staff, parents and students.
RISE is the national association representing the manufacturers, formulators, distributors and other industry leaders involved with specialty pesticide and fertilizer products used in turf, ornamental, pest control, aquatic and terrestrial vegetation management and other non-food/fiber applications.
Related Web Sites
Aquatic pest control
The Aquatic Plant Management Society http://www.apms.org/
North American Lake Management Society http://www.nalms.org/
Sports Turf Managers Assn. http://www.sportsturfmanager.com
Chemical Industry Home Page http://www.neis.com
CropLife America http://www.croplifeamerica.org
Extension Toxicology Network http://ace.orst.edu/info/extoxnet
Pesticide Label and MSDS's http://www.cdms.net
Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment (RISE) http://www.pestfacts.org
Cooperative extension services (listed by state)
Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Servers http://www.reeusda.gov/1700/statepartners/usa.htm
OPEI CyberLawn USA http://www.opei.org
American Society of Golf Course Architects http://www.golfdesign.org
The Golf Circuit http://golfcircuit.com
Golf Course Superintendents Assn. of America (GCSAA) http://www.gcsaa.org
The Golf Group http://www.golf-ar.com/
Golf Network Review http://www.golfnetwork.com
Golf Web http://www.golfweb.com
United States Golf Assn. http://www.usga.org
Center for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov
Environmental Protection Agency http://www.epa.gov
Government-wide search engine http://www.firstgov.gov
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/
Occupational Safety and Health Administration http://www.osha.gov/
Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment (RISE)/West Nile http://www.westnilevirusfacts.org
Integrated pest management (IPM)
Center for Environmental and Regulatory Information Systems http://www.ceris.purdue.edu
National IPM Network http://ipm.ncsu.edu
Responsible Industry for a Sound Environment (RISE)/School IPM http://www.schoolpestfacts.com
Urban IPM http://ipm.ifas.ufl.edu
Associated Landscape Contractors of America http://www.alca.org
Professional Grounds Management Society http://www.pgms.org
Professional Lawn Care Association of America http://www.plcaa.org
Turf Grass Producers International http://www.turfgrasssod.org
National Pest Control Association http://www.pestworld.org
National Arborist Association http://www.natlarb.com
National Roadside Vegetation Management Association http://www.nrvma.org
Technical credits: Cooperative Extension Service, Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, Grounds Maintenance magazine, National Pest Control Association, Professional Lawn Care Association of America, Dr. Mark Welterlen, chemical companies and RISE
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